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More filters. Sort order. May 16, Luke Echo rated it liked it. This is a rather odd collection of Kant's writings. Drawn from various periods and include many of his more notoriously racist remarks. In parts quite interesting reading, but in others really a tedious chore. Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View What was that all about?

Also Kant's apparent obsession with the dangers of "shame" in pedagogy was surprising. Burke rated it really liked it Apr 06, Daniel rated it really liked it Aug 22, Erin rated it did not like it Feb 15, Billy rated it really liked it Dec 05, Sheikh Tajamul rated it liked it Nov 06, Edward Moran rated it it was amazing Oct 23, Mat Kline rated it really liked it Dec 25, John P. Michael rated it it was amazing Jul 23, Jesse rated it it was amazing Dec 05, Stijn Van impe rated it liked it Sep 10, Jeppe von rated it it was amazing Mar 31, Max rated it it was amazing Oct 23, Carlo rated it liked it Nov 02, Foppe added it Aug 14, Charles added it Jun 25, Elie added it Jul 25, Justin Ball added it Dec 31, Simon marked it as to-read Apr 07, Jared added it May 27, Ahmed Oraby marked it as to-read Aug 07, Xavier marked it as to-read Aug 25, Ellery marked it as to-read Nov 11, Billy Candelaria marked it as to-read Jun 02, Cormac marked it as to-read Aug 09, Derek Peffer marked it as to-read Jan 27, Kyle added it Jun 04, Renan Virginio marked it as to-read Jul 07, Itai Farhi marked it as to-read Aug 27, Kyle marked it as to-read Dec 14, Abdennour marked it as to-read Dec 28, Samantha Moss marked it as to-read Jan 19, Bart Christensen marked it as to-read Jan 23, As the reader can see, Vera Candau's comments on educational research in the s show a certain exhaustion of the quantitative model of research in the area of education.

Anthropology and Education

Her vision concerning the interdisciplinarity between anthropology and education indicates the change in theoretical perspectives of the time and the dissatisfaction with the prevailing research model. It raises the issue of working with the concept of culture as a relevant renovation, something that currently pervades a large part of the investigations in the PPGE.

Another point worthy of attention is the vision of the pedagogical processes as cultural processes. These are some reasons for the incorporation of anthropology as fundamental to investigations in this area. To end this comment, I want to highlight that great transformations occurred that may be studied at another time, regarding both the approach and the themes and contents of the research conducted by the PPGE from the s to the present day. The practice of interdisciplinarity, that is, moving along and crossing disciplinary boundaries, is common to both anthropology and education.

Whether working with one or the other, the complexity of the construction of the object under study leads to examining it from different angles. Thus, given my doctoral studies and my choices, urban anthropology became the basis for my research problems. I begin with the statement by Gilberto Velho , that urban anthropology is a huge universe, not a subarea, rather "a meeting point for research and analysis, in which the universe of symbolism and representations is increasingly incorporated into research and public policies.

The author himself mentions, at different points in the text, the connections made among Marxism, Existentialism, Interactionism, authors difficult to classify, Brazilian authors, novelists and social scientists, as well as the classics of anthropology, as sources in his academic training and in his point of view as a researcher.

Given my interdisciplinary training, graduation in philosophy, MA in education and PhD in social anthropology, I "naturally" identified with this style of acquiring knowledge and with the "challenge" of establishing the area of anthropology and education at PUC-Rio. Thus, it came about that I entered belatedly, but with much excitement, into academic life, no longer as a student, but as a professional. My intention was to show the pedagogical phenomena, practices and representations, without reducing them to the merely pedagogical, since they emerge from historical and social contexts.

Therefore, the so-called educational phenomena are cultural phenomena. This relativizing aspect, working the phenomena as social and historical constructs, transforms the construction of the object education, whether in the context of school or outside it, by emphasizing sociabilities and other cultural and historical processes.

Foundation of anthropological thought (ANT)

The issue of research in school is transmuted, since another theoretical-methodological arsenal is activated to observe and interpret it. In my view, this goes beyond having a reference science to constructing another research object that signifies the junction of two areas, like an amalgam of these. According to the researcher, Teixeira struggled to develop education as one of the "great scientific arts," citing the examples of medicine and engineering.

Within the curriculum organization that has as core disciplines, sociology, philosophy, history, psychology and, finally, the last one to enter Brazilian programs in education at the university level, anthropology, I discern reflections of this concept of education as something between "art" and "practice," which seeks a source-science as a reference.

I would like to digress momentarily and register the curiously recurrent use of the category "art" in the language of professionals separated by decades, cultures and training, to lend meaning to their practices, as did the educator Teixeira and later, the anthropologist Timothy Ingold: "This sensibility to the strange in the close-at-hand is, I believe, one that anthropology shares with art" There is in fact nothing new in the use of "art" as an attribute of numerous professions, designating a special capability, an ability in the field of human knowledge.

This is a social category that can also be applied, for example, to medicine. In short, it is said that the educational representations and practices, as presented herein, are worked in all their diversity and heterogeneity, with anthropology as the basis. In my view, a work of articulation crosses the boundaries between these areas, from the inside. Something beyond having anthropology as a reference science, I was seeking an amalgam, an interdisciplinarity.


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It is important to state that public education policy formulators have been making significant demands for anthropological knowledge; the education of indigenous Brazilians and that of quilombolas are examples of the need for this knowledge. This is a factor for change in both disciplines. Finally, even when maintaining their specificities, both anthropology and education are in meeting processes, considerable disquiet, as well as historical, methodological and conceptual transformations. The anthropology and education interface is highly heterogeneous.

Classifications vary, as some call it the "anthropology of education. Having started this area in an education department and as the result of the arguments above, I decided to accentuate the meaning of the interface and the construction of hybrid knowledge, denominating the area I opened up as anthropology and education. Thus, I was seeking the "art" of the interlocution between anthropology and education. A theory-based educational investigation was developing, under my proposal, from a perspective grounded in the practice of "participant observation, open interviews and direct personal contact" Velho , stemming from a concept of culture and a vision of ethnography as epistemology.

On this journey, I considered the importance of remaining aware that there are several concepts of ethnography etymologically - writing on culture , and that these understandings have distinct consequences when describing the universes under study. This perspective, which emerged with Bronislaw Malinowski's foundational text on ethnography in the s, is taken as reference, particularly regarding its methodological and foundational properties.

History & Anthropology

The text places the reader inside the world of anthropological research, with unforgettable passages on the organization of its knowledge, such as experiencing the daily life of the universe being studied, the search for regularities and extraordinary aspects, the native's point of view. Among other lessons, this text remains indispensable for entering the world of anthropology.

Based on his own experiences with native Brazilian tribes, he distances himself from the parameters of the pioneers in anthropology. He presents ethnography as an exercise in "sharing and communication," in contrast to the so-called colonial practices of anthropology I also structured myself based on Clifford Geertz's position : "In anthropology, or anyway in social anthropology, what the practitioners do is ethnography.

And it is in understanding what ethnography is, or more exactly what doing ethnography is, that a start can be made toward grasping what anthropological analysis amounts to as a form of knowledge. Finding our feet Geertz , seeing things from the point of view of the other on their own terms, capturing their categories, values, beliefs, worldviews, symbolic actions, this necessarily cannot be reduced to a question of techniques. According to Geertz , it is a matter of "thick description. It is finding our feet in the culture being studied, in other words, in a "web of significances," believing, like Max Weber, "that man is an animal suspended in webs of significance he himself has spun, I take culture to be those webs, and the analysis of it to be therefore not an experimental science in search of law but an interpretative one in search of meaning" Geertz This is the semiotic concept of culture in the paradigm of interpretive anthropology.

Such understandings can assist in the author's reading and in the reader's interpretation. This concept of culture, its connotation as a system of symbols and shared significances, was contrasted with other definitions from other paradigms. Deliberately, however, it reinforced the perspective of a symbolic action that needed to be interpreted, such that its meaning is captured in the context studied, in a relation of alterity.


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Besides Clifford Geertz's above-mentioned stance, Roberto Cardoso de Oliveira also inspired me, when he pronounced:. His text on the anthropologist's craft sheds light on the work of an ethnographer, which is summarized as: "look, listen, write. For another perspective on "anthropological writing" and "textual strategies," one should read Geertz Cardoso de Oliveira highlights the ethnographic craft through two attitudes: "participant observation" and "relativization" contrasted with ethnocentrism, expanding our understanding of ethnographical practice.

Amid other discussions, authors, issues, readings, through these "clearings," I sought to create the mediations between the anthropologist's craft and the field of education. At this level of discussion, the work of Timothy Ingold stands out. Anthropological practice is an epistemological and cognitive "invention.

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Through its modus operandi, "an education in anthropology, therefore, does more than furnish us with knowledge about the world - about people and their societies. It rather educates our perception of the world" Ingold Again, I insist it is also formative and transformative, in intellectual, subjective and communicative terms. For Ingold, anthropology implies a relationship of active and dialogic alterity, as the "world" becomes what we understand of it with the "other" and not about the "other" Ingold We learn that everything can be lived and symbolized in different ways.

We go to encounter cultural diversity. He declares that ethnography, liberated "from the tyranny of method" "is a practice in its own right-a practice of verbal description" As a description of a way of life, it has its own meaning.

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The task to be undertaken required that master's and doctoral students dive into this intersection, and discuss the anthropologist's craft. My action as an anthropologist was to produce a contact situation between the two disciplines to create an interdisciplinary experience, through a process of mediation, seen as movement between these two worlds, lifestyles and differences, observing the pertinent issues that emerged through the students' practices and representations.

We have moved between these universes in classroom situations and research groups. The communication thus established made epistemological transformations possible, along the disciplinary boundaries Velho ; This was my way of responding to the tension between anthropology, which seeks the knowledge of cultures in their diversity, and the proposal of intervention and transformation that is, largely, a characteristic of education.

This contrast expresses distances and differences in the practices and representations of anthropology and education. Pursuing "inside" knowledge. Research, however, should be based on questions, problems, conceptions and practices elaborated in contact with anthropological literature. Thus, another way of writing and thinking was forged that aggregated cultural categories and meanings from the "other's" point of view, in a relation of alterity. Additional research objects thus emerged, seen as social and historical constructs, and other attitudes and practices of educational research.

Returning to Gilberto Velho , the adopted practice underscores the possibility that sharing cultural legacies with those we live with must not blind us to discontinuities and differences, generated by different paths, choices and lifestyles. For the anthropologist, researching in large cities and metropolises reveals the heterogeneity that the social division of labor, institutional complexity and cultural traditions express in differentiated and even contradictory worldviews. From a more traditional perspective, it could be said that this is what allows the anthropologist to carry out investigations in his own city.

That is, that there are clear internal cultural distances in the urban settings we live in, allowing the "native" to conduct anthropological research in groups different from theirs, even if they are basically close. Velho This approach requires the researcher in education to adopt a certain attitude of "strangeness" while working in their own city, and to think according to different reference systems, that is, according to other forms of representing, defining, classifying, and organizing reality and daily life, other than their own terms.

How Teachers Can Use Anthropology in Classrooms

Another aspect is worthy of attention. In his analyses, Velho warns of the risk of observing social segments as if they were independent, self-contained and isolated units. Reflecting on the urban context, he signals to the social heterogeneity that the notion of a complex society carries with it and asks a crucial question: "How can sufficiently significant experiences be found to create symbolic boundaries?

On the other hand, what can be communicated and shared, what are the values, what are the limits of the symbolic negotiations? These questions are equally relevant to educational practice and to thinking about other versions of the phenomena that interest the educator, in other words, they generate boundary knowledge, hybrid knowledge between anthropology and education, which are present in institutional research, dissertations and theses. The choice of the empirical field focused on the school 24 and the university, as well as other social spaces, such as networks of graffiti artist, filmmakers, writers, while questions linked to training and education in a broad sense have remained.

The dilemmas that may exist cannot be obstacles to the teaching of anthropology in education, even considering the risks of trivialization or misinterpretation and the distance between the different ways that authors and schools of anthropology are appropriated, whether the reader is situated inside or outside the social sciences. Roger Chartier says that the works do not have a single, intrinsic meaning and that they are appropriated by plural practices and concrete readers, which lends them to contradictory and different meanings, according to their trajectories, competencies, positions and dispositions.

How do anthropological authors and texts migrate to other areas? What is read? How is it read? How does the articulation between these fields happen?