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  1. Early puberty in white adolescent boys increases substance use risk
  2. Bibliographic Information
  3. Adolescent Substance Use and Abuse: Recognition and Management - American Family Physician

The physician should screen parents for substance use and abuse and refer those who screen positive to an adult treatment program. Family therapy is crucial, and the provision of family support and strength building is well within the realm of family practice.

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Peer groups play a vital role in promoting abstinence as well as abuse. Unsupervised adolescents are likely to seek out peers of similar backgrounds. While undergoing treatment, patients will be involved in new peer groups that are committed at least superficially to sobriety and that can support one another in remaining abstinent. The physician can encourage participation in activities such as sports, after-school clubs, and volunteerism to maximize positive peer interactions and healthy lifestyles and minimize antisocial connections.

Early puberty in white adolescent boys increases substance use risk

The physician should be knowledgeable about community programs for children whose parents have substance use disorders. Programs such as Alateen can often be of help to children and adolescents Table 2. Although the family physician may treat adolescents with substance use disorders in the office setting, it is often necessary and prudent to refer them to outside professionals.

Edited by Kenneth J. Sher

Referral depends on the severity of abuse, comorbid psychiatric diagnoses, family and social issues, whether the youth has been involved in the juvenile justice system, motivation, and support, as well as the availability of treatments in the community. Substance Use Disorders. It is imperative that the physician identify a network of competent and trustworthy treatment professionals, including child and adolescent psychiatrists, psychologists, and social workers, who specialize in adolescent addiction, as well as outpatient and inpatient substance detoxification and rehabilitation programs.

This may involve advocating with managed care organizations to get sufficiently intensive and continuing treatment for the patient. There will be many opportunities to follow up with the adolescent referred to outside treatment. For example, when the adolescent presents with an acute medical problem, the physician can ask how substance abuse treatment is progressing.

If the adolescent has discontinued treatment as is often the case , the physician may be able to intervene. It is the physician's responsibility to validate the adolescent's concerns while encouraging compliance. Comorbid Disorders. Because anxiety, depression, and disruptive behavior disorders are common comorbid diagnoses with substance abuse, it can be helpful to determine when the symptoms first occurred.

This may involve a review of school records and reports from other treatment professionals.

Bibliographic Information

Abstinence from substance use for at least one month can help determine whether the substance use disorder or the psychiatric diagnosis is primary. However, this could delay the decision to initiate psychotropic medications, which is unacceptable in adolescents with depression, bipolar disorder, or psychosis, or when there are concerns of lethality.

Therefore, referral to a child and adolescent psychiatrist should be concurrent with ongoing substance abuse treatment in adolescents with comorbidities. If psychiatric consultation is not readily available, the family physician should collaborate closely with therapists, such as child psychologists or social workers, to stabilize the psychiatric condition, and the physician should take responsibility for medication management Table 4 Although abstinence from substance use should precede the use of psychotropic medication, there is a risk that untreated psychiatric illness will impede treatment initiation, precipitate early dropout, or interfere with achievement of abstinence.

Establish mechanisms to closely monitor medication compliance, adverse effects, target symptom response e. Monitor patient treatment motivation, behavior changes, and psychosocial functioning. Provide information about potential interactions between medications and substance of abuse. Use medication with good safety profiles, low abuse potential, and once-a-day dosing. Information from reference When psychiatric stability is achieved, the physician and mental health collaborators should develop a plan for monitoring substance use and for regular exchange of information.

Ongoing lethality assessment is of great importance throughout substance abuse treatment for adolescents. The physician should ask about suicidal ideation, intention, or planning. Adolescents who are intoxicated are at high risk of successful suicide and of hurting others through accidents or violence. The family physician should ask about the accessibility of guns or other weapons and recommend to parents that these be removed from the adolescent's possession.

If the physician determines that harm is imminent, the adolescent should be hospitalized. Already a member or subscriber? Log in. General Hospital. JOAN B. She earned a master's degree and doctorate in anthropology from the University of California, Berkeley. Reprints are not available from the authors. The authors thank Angela Henke for her assistance in the preparation of the manuscript. Contemporary addiction treatment: a review of systems problems for adults and adolescents.

Biol Psychiatry. Characteristics and problems of adolescent cannabis abusers in outpatient treatment. General practitioners' role in preventive medicine: scenario analysis using alcohol as a case study. Drug Alcohol Rev. Treatment of adolescents with substance use disorders. Accessed June 21, American Psychiatric Association. Practice parameter for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with substance use disorders.

Alcohol dependence or abuse and age at first use. Clark DB. The natural history of adolescent alcohol use disorders.

National household survey on drug use and health. Rockville, Md. Co-occurring disorders in the adolescent mental health and substance abuse treatment systems. J Psychoactive Drugs.

Identifying co-occurring disorders in adolescent population. J Addict Dis.

Adolescent Substance Use and Abuse: Recognition and Management - American Family Physician

Depression and the initiation of alcohol and other drug use among youths aged 12 to Substance use problems and associated psychiatric symptoms among adolescents in primary care. Adolescents are not adults: developmental considerations in alcohol users. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. Etiology of substance use disorder in children and adolescents: emerging findings from the Center for Education and Drug Abuse Research.

Am J Psychiatry. Genetic and environmental influences on behavioral disinhibition. Am J Med Genet. Childhood risk categories for adolescent substance involvement: a general liability typology. Drug Alcohol Depend. Ethnicity and adolescent substance use. Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol. Leawood, Kan. Missed opportunity: national survey of primary care physicians and patients on substance abuse.

Alcohol screening in young persons attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic.